We do have “Always encrypted” feature in SQL 2016 and later versions, from this feature we can encrypt the column data instead of encrypting whole database. Sensitive data like credit card numbers, SSN.
We need to prepare a list of encrypted columns at some where to track for future.
Without tracking anywhere in the documents we can run the simple SQL query which returns all the columns in respective tables and encryption type.
SELECT t.name AS TableName, c.name AS ColumnName, k.name AS KeyName, c.encryption_type_desc, c.encryption_algorithm_name FROM sys.columns c INNER JOIN sys.column_encryption_keys k ON c.column_encryption_key_id = k.column_encryption_key_id INNER JOIN sys.tables t ON c.object_id = t.object_id WHERE encryption_type IS NOT NULL